如何测试web网站?

发表于:2012-01-05来源:未知作者:娃娃点击数: 标签:web测试
web网站本质上带有web服务器和客户端浏览器的C/S结构的应用程序。主要考虑web页面、TCP/IP通讯、Internet链接、防火墙和运行在web页面上的一些程序(例如,applet、javascript、应用程序插件),以及运行在服务器端的应用程序(例如,CGI脚本、数据库接口、日

  译文

  web网站本质上带有web服务器和客户端浏览器的C/S结构的应用程序。主要考虑web页面、TCP/IP通讯、Internet链接、防火墙和运行在web页面上的一些程序(例如,applet、javascript、应用程序插件),以及运行在服务器端的应用程序(例如,CGI脚本、数据库接口、日志程序、动态页面产生器,asp等)。另外,因为服务器和浏览器类型很多,不同版本差别很小,但是表现出现的结果却不同,连接速度以及日益迅速的技术和多种标准、协议。使得web测试成为一项正在不断研究的课题。其它要考虑的如下:

  1、服务器上期望的负载是多少(例如,每单位时间内的点击量),在这些负载下应该具有什么样的性能(例如,服务器反应时间,数据库查询时间)。性能测试需要什么样的测试工具呢(例如,web负载测试工具,其它已经被采用的测试工具,web 自动下载工具,等等)?

  2、系统用户是谁?他们使用什么样的浏览器?使用什么类型的连接速度?他们是在公司内部(这样可能有比较快的连接速度和相似的浏览器)或者外部(这可能有使用多种浏览器和连接速度)?

  3、在客户端希望有什么样的性能(例如,页面显示速度?动画、applets的速度等?如何引导和运行)?

  4、允许网站维护或升级吗?投入多少?

  5、需要考虑安全方面(防火墙,加密、密码等)是否需要,如何做?怎么能被测试?需要连接的Internet网站可靠性有多高?对备份系统或冗余链接请求如何处理和测试?web网站管理、升级时需要考虑哪些步骤?需求、跟踪、控制页面内容、图形、链接等有什么需求?

  6、需要考虑哪种HTML规范?多么严格?允许终端用户浏览器有哪些变化?

  7、页面显示和/或图片占据整个页面或页面一部分有标准或需求吗?

  8、内部和外部的链接能够被验证和升级吗?多久一次?

  9、产品系统上能被测试吗?或者需要一个单独的测试系统?浏览器的缓存、浏览器操作设置改变、拨号上网连接以及Internet中产生的“交通堵塞”问题在测试中是否解决,这些考虑了吗?

  10、服务器日志和报告内容能定制吗?它们是否被认为是系统测试的主要部分并需要测试吗?

  11、CGI程序、applets、javascripts、ActiveX 组件等能被维护、跟踪、控制和测试吗?

  原文:

  How can World Wide Web sites be tested?

  Web sites are essentially client/server applications - with web servers and 'browser' clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between html pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, javascript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as cgi scripts, database interfaces, logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc.). Additionally, there are a wide variety of servers and browsers, various versions of each, small but sometimes significant differences between them, variations in connection speeds, rapidly changing technologies, and multiple standards and protocols. The end result is that testing for web sites can become a major ongoing effort. Other considerations might include:

  What are the expected loads on the server (e.g., number of hits per unit time?), and what kind of performance is required under such loads (such as web server response time, database query response times). What kinds of tools will be needed for performance testing (such as web load testing tools, other tools already in house that can be adapted, web robot downloading tools, etc.)?

  Who is the target audience? What kind of browsers will they be using? What kind of connection speeds will they by using? Are they intra- organization (thus with likely high connection speeds and similar browsers) or Internet-wide (thus with a wide variety of connection speeds and browser types)?

  What kind of performance is expected on the client side (e.g., how fast should pages appear, how fast should animations, applets, etc. load and run)?

  Will down time for server and content maintenance/upgrades be allowed? how much?

  What kinds of security (firewalls, encryptions, passwords, etc.) will be required and what is it expected to do? How can it be tested?

  How reliable are the site's Internet connections required to be? And how does that affect backup system or redundant connection requirements and testing?

  What processes will be required to manage updates to the web site's content, and what are the requirements for maintaining, tracking, and controlling page content, graphics, links, etc.?

  Which HTML specification will be adhered to? How strictly? What variations will be allowed for targeted browsers?

  Will there be any standards or requirements for page appearance and/or graphics throughout a site or parts of a site??

  How will internal and external links be validated and updated? how often?

  Can testing be done on the production system, or will a separate test system be required? How are browser caching, variations in browser option settings, dial-up connection variabilities, and real-world internet 'traffic congestion' problems to be accounted for in testing?

  How extensive or customized are the server logging and reporting requirements; are they considered an integral part of the system and do they require testing?

原文转自:http://www.ltesting.net

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